This week I’d like to share a podcast with you from Dr. Chris Vlachos.
Chris Vlachos (PhD), Visiting Assistant Professor of New Testament, discusses how Greek word order effects meaning. With examples from James 1 and Revelation 2, he shows that “reading the New Testament in Greek is like watching High Definition TV.”
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The apostle Paul succeeds in his Gentile mission due in large part to a network of Christian brothers and sisters he began to establish shortly after his call to be an apostle (Galatians 1-2). Depending upon how broadly the term is defined, eighty to ninety people are described as Paul’s co-workers in Acts and the NT letters attributed to him. Some appear to relate to Paul as equals (e.g., Barnabas, Apollos, Aquila); others as subordinates (e.g., Timothy, Titus, Tychichus). Some work closely with Paul (e.g., Timothy, Luke, Silas); others independently (e.g., Apollos, Prisca, Barnabas). Some carry out their work primarily in a local setting (e.g., Philemon, Euodia); others travel with Paul or serve as his delegates when he cannot travel (Luke, Timothy, Titus). Still, all of his co-workers act cooperatively with him in a wide variety of mission activities.
In his letters Paul refers to these associates by a variety of terms including “co-worker” (sunergos), “apostle” (apostolos), “brother” (adelphos), “minister” (diakonos), “fellow servant” (sundoulos), “fellow-soldier” (sustratiōtēs), and “fellow-prisoner” (sunaichmalōtos). These terms are not synonymous, although various designations can complement others. The types of services these associates provide Paul and his congregations depend primarily on the gifts given to each (e.g., Rom 12:6-8; 1 Cor 12:4-11). Co-workers assist Paul in his travels, in his preaching and teaching ministry, in hosting church gatherings, in repairing problems in the churches, in meeting his needs while he is in prison, and in writing letters. When Paul establishes a church, he identifies and trains local leaders to work in cooperation with him. He instructs leaders and congregations in person when present and by letter when absent.
We should likely distinguish between “apostles of Jesus Christ” and “apostles of the churches.” The phrase “apostles of Jesus Christ” refers to individuals who have seen the risen Jesus (1 Cor 9:1) and have been commissioned directly by him. While the term “apostle” may be used narrowly to refer to “the Twelve” (e.g., Acts 4:35-37), Paul uses it more broadly to refer to others including himself, Apollos and Barnabas. The phrase “apostles of the churches” extends the usage further by referring to individuals chosen and commissioned by local congregations (e.g., Epaphroditus [Phil 2:25] and Andronicus and Junia [Rom 16:7]).
Remarkably Paul designates a number of women as “co-workers,” “ministers,” and “apostles.” Phoebe, Euodia, Syntyche, Apphia, Priscilla (= Prisca), and Junia exercise leadership locally and serve as traveling missionaries. These women assist Paul in a variety of ways. The more affluent serve as benefactors, providing lodging, hospitality, and opening their homes to gatherings of the local churches. Women gifted otherwise are involved in ministries of preaching and teaching.
Some of Paul’s co-workers contribute to the letters that he writes. Eight of the thirteen letters attributed to Paul name co-senders. As “apostle of Jesus Christ” Paul’s name and titles appear first followed by the names of others including Sosthenes, Silvanus ( = Silas), Timothy, and Titus. The extent of their contribution is unclear, but it is likely that they have some role in composing the letter. Likewise most of Paul’s letters bear the distinct marks of secretarial influence. The secretary’s role may vary from letter to letter or section to section within a single letter. At times a secretary may take dictation from the author; at others he may take on more of an authorial role. The only named secretary in Paul’s letters is Tertius (Rom 16:22). His greeting “in the Lord” demonstrates that he is not a hired pen but a co-worker in the mission. In the final analysis Paul’s letters are not products of a single mind. Properly understood, his letters are a collaborative enterprise, an interchange of ideas and traditions between Paul, his secretaries and his co-senders.
Capernaum is not mentioned in the Old Testament. Although we cannot say for certain, it is probable any local population would have been killed or otherwise displaced in the Assyrian invasions in the 8th century BC. In fact there is little material evidence of human settlement before the 2nd century BC. Later Jewish writers refer to Capernaum as “Kefar Nahum” (the village of Nahum—not likely the biblical prophet). Apparently, Capernaum was the site of some of Jesus’ earliest miracles, a fact that didn’t escape the hometown crowd in Nazareth (Luke 4.23). Matthew tells us that Jesus healed the centurion’s son from a distance in Capernaum and went on to heal Peter’s mother-in-law (Matt 8.5, 14). He healed a paralytic after four of his friends peeled back the roof of a modest Capernaum house and lowered him in front of the Savior on his mat (Mark 2.1; Matt 9.1-8). It was in Capernaum that Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue, implored Jesus to raise his daughter after the mourners had already gathered to grieve (Matt 9.18-26). Despite all the miracles Jesus performed there, he still prophesied destruction against the village and people there because of unbelief (Matt 11.23).
Capernaum is described in the Gospels as “his own city” (Matt 9.1), but the text is silent on why Jesus chose Capernaum as the center of his public life. Perhaps it was the ease of travel on the flat plain along the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Perhaps it was the speed of passage across the lake to the Gentile cities of the Decapolis. Perhaps it was because Capernaum sat at some distance from Antipas’ seat of power. It was Antipas after all who had John beheaded, and Jesus’ fate was supposed to end in Jerusalem not Galilee. Still for reasons known only to him, Jesus chose Capernaum, and now for centuries Christian pilgrims have made their way to the place where Jesus first proclaimed with power the rule of God.
Modern visitors to Capernaum can explore the remains of a beautiful synagogue built in the Byzantine era. It is one of the best preserved ancient synagogues in the Holy Land. The large, white limestone blocks and columns stand in sharp contrast to the native stone which is a black basalt (volcanic) stone. The Byzantine synagogue was apparently built over the site of an earlier synagogue whose floor archaeologists uncovered a few years ago. It measures 60 feet wide by 79 feet long. Since building materials were hard to come by, builders often incorporated stable parts of earlier foundations and walls into later structures. This both concealed and preserved the earlier buildings. Although we cannot say for certain, this may well be the floor of the synagogue where Jesus preached and exorcized evil spirits in Capernaum (Luke 7.1ff; Mark 1.21-28).
In the fifth century AD Christians built an octagonal church building south of the synagogue. Byzantine Christians loved the octagonal form and often used it to commemorate places they considered holy. The building with its lovely mosaic floors had been constructed over the remains of a 4th century structure (likely a church) that had in turn been built over a first century house. A particularly strong tradition holds that this is the Capernaum residence of Peter, one of the twelve. The house of Peter, as it is called, was a modest, one-story house. Its roof would have been made of branches, thatch and mud, not unlike the roof that was dug out to allow the paralyzed man access to Jesus (Mark 2.1-12). The plastered walls of the large, central room contain over 150 inscriptions scribed like graffiti in the walls in the various languages of the early church: Greek, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac and Latin.
To preserve the house where tradition has it that Peter lived, believers have constructed a new church over the site. Like its ancient counterpart the modern structure has eight sides, but it sits several meters above the site atop eight pillars that describe eight sides. It hovers above the Byzantine remains preserving and protecting the precious material culture of the past from Capernaum’s warm summers and winter rains. Today Christian pilgrims, like their spiritual ancestors 1500 years ago, make their way to Capernaum to see the place where Peter lived and where Jesus began to turn the world upside down.
When Jesus heard that John the baptizer had been imprisoned, he left the Jordan valley and went north toward the district of Galilee (Matt 4.13). His baptism by John in the river had been the turning point of his life. From here on everything would be different. Jesus had lived a private life; now he would become a public person. He had earned his living as a carpenter selling his goods in Nazareth and likely Sepphoris, a larger, more affluent city a few miles away; now he would become a preacher of the Kingdom of God, healing and making disciples throughout Galilee, Judea, Samaria and the Decapolis. He had grown up in Nazareth; now he would leave behind his hometown and settle in Capernaum.
But why did Jesus go north to Galilee? Why didn’t he head straight for Jerusalem, the city of prophets? Well, the answer is simple. He was guided by Scripture. Hundreds of years before Mary labored and gave birth to her male child, the prophet Isaiah had foreseen a day when hope returned to the land mortally wounded by invaders from the north. He prophesied:
Isaiah 9:1-2 (NASV) But there will be no more gloom for her who was in anguish; in earlier times He treated the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali with contempt, but later on He shall make it glorious, by the way of the sea, on the other side of Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles. 2 The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them.
Jesus knew the Scriptures. He understood that the renewal was to begin up north, in the ancestral lands of Zebulun and Naphtali, districts known in his day as Galilee. That was only right in the justice of God because it was these regions that fell first to Assyrian and Babylonian aggression. The villages and towns first to fall and walk in darkness were to be the first to have the light shine upon them. Jesus was that light. Capernaum would become his city.
Rather than return to Nazareth, his hometown, the Gospels tell us that Jesus “moved” to Capernaum and made it the headquarters of his ministry. Capernaum was a village on the north-west corner of the Sea of Galilee. It was the home of two sets of brothers–Simon and Andrew, James and John. Fishing provided their families a living on the Sea of Galilee. The sea also provided plenty of fresh water for the people residing there. Population estimates during Jesus’ day for the village have conservatively been set between 1200-1700 inhabitants. Although most of Capernaum’s citizens were Jewish, there is evidence some non-Jews also made it their home. Still this is no thriving city. Unlike larger cities it had no wall to protect it, no aqueducts, no colonnaded streets, no administrative buildings and no theater. Its only significant public space was a synagogue that served as both a place of worship and a community center. Had Jesus not made Capernaum his base of operations, it is likely most would never have even heard of it.
Join me next for Part 2 of Jesus and Capernaum.
Dr. Adam Miglio, Associate Professor of Archaeology at Wheaton College, discusses the way Hebrew words are repeated in order to provide a “bread crumb trail” to focus our attention on key themes we might miss in translation. It’s not unlike the musical score of “Star Wars.”
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